Northwestern University School of Law
The contemporary criminal justice system is guided, in large part, from the top down. A great deal of the force that drives the "terrible engine" of the criminal law is supplied by courts that consider cases on review after a defendant has been convicted.
'Were There No Appeal': The History of Review in American Criminal Courts
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology
Available at: https://scholarship.law.bu.edu/faculty_scholarship/1609