Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Experimentation on human beings is so difficult to justify that the attempt is seldom even made. Usually its justification is simply assumed, and vague notions of progress or national emergency are suggested as sufficient rationales. The United States, a society dedicated to both progress and human rights, has been profoundly ambivalent about human experimentation. On the one hand, we have consistently argued in our ethical codes that the rights and welfare of research subjects must be protected; on the other hand, we have consistently used perceived emergencies, both national and medical, as an excuse to jettison individual rights and welfare in human experimentation.
George J. Annas,
Mengele's Birthmark: The Nuremberg Code in United States Courts
Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy
Available at: https://scholarship.law.bu.edu/faculty_scholarship/1223