J. Remy Green

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

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UNC School of Law




In copyright law, the author of an original work has the exclusive right to prepare further works derivative of that original. Video game developers’ works are protected by the Copyright Act. As video games take advantage of more advanced technology, however, players are doing more creative, interesting, and original things when they play games. Certain things players do create independent economic value and are the kinds of acts of original authorship our copyright system is designed to encourage. However, since the author of the video game is entitled to the full panoply of rights under the laws of the American copyright regime, they own the exclusive right to prepare works “derivative” of that game.

This Article has both descriptive and normative goals. Its descriptive goals are to outline the current legal trends in the video game space and to demonstrate the huge economic stakes at play. Its normative goals are to offer a number of different ways of explaining how derivative works of video games are created and to suggest several modes of understanding how cases where ownership of these works is disputed should be decided. These modes include philosophical thought experiments, critical analysis of what exactly a game is, analysis of what kind of game underlies the second order work in question, and application of the liability/property rule framework from law and economics literature.

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