Massachusetts Medical Society
The ability of consumers to complain effectively about services and products is a key ingredient of the market. In Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, economist Albert O. Hirschman argues that the ability to take one's business elsewhere may not be enough to empower consumers in markets where all providers act similarly. Instead of simply going elsewhere, consumers need to have an effective way to voice their complaints, in order to give providers an incentive to be more responsive to consumers' interests. Marc Rodwin has suggested that the Hirschman analysis may be particularly relevant to members of managed-care organizations and ``individuals with on-going relations with providers such as nursing homes."
George J. Annas,
Patients' Rights in Managed Care - Exit, Voice, and Choice,
New England Journal of Medicine
Available at: https://scholarship.law.bu.edu/faculty_scholarship/1272